Posts tagged with "The Independent UK"

Hogging the joystick: Pigs can play computer games, study shows

June 11, 2021

Pigs have been taught to play video games by using a joystick—in a study that confirms their high intelligence, reports The Independent UK.

Indeed, it’s long been known that pigs are smarter than dogs, and are believed to be  the sixth-most intelligent creature on Earth—after ravens and crows, chimpanzees, elephants, gorillas, and dolphins.

Early 20th-century studies found that they could solve multiple-choice problems; and later studies showed they could learn to obtain light, produce extra heat for their enclosures; and acquire feed.

For the latest study researchers at Purdue University trained four pigs to control a cursor on a monitor, using their snouts to move the joystick in return for rewards. They used two micro pigs called Ebony and Ivory; and two Yorkshire pigs, called Hamlet and Omelet, to test the animals’ abilities.

Writing in the journal Frontiers in Psychology, Professor Candace Croney of Purdue University, and Sarah Boysen said they showed the animals a video game in which they had to use a joystick to maneuver a cursor until it collided with one of four wall-like structures on screen, making a sound—at which point the pig received a food treat.

“Although food rewards associated with the task were likely a motivating factor, the social contact the pigs experienced with their trainer also appeared to be very important,” the researchers wrote.

Even when the equipment failed and there were no treats, the pigs still made correct responses, being rewarded only with “verbal and tactile reinforcement from the experimenter,” they said.

“This may have been due to the strong bond the pigs developed with the experimenter during training.”

Croney said: “Potentially there may be more that pigs are capable of learning and understanding and responding to than we have previously envisaged.”

Philip Lymbery, global chief executive of Compassion in World Farming, said the study highlighted a need for the animals to be treated better. “This latest research shows pigs are even more intelligent than we ever thought, yet we still keep the majority of pigs in the most appallingly deprived conditions on factory farms,” he said.

Research contact: @independent

Do what? This is why you keep forgetting what you wanted to do when you enter a new room

April 20, 2021

Scientists have long sought to explain why it is that we sometimes enter a room to do something important—but forget the task as soon as we get there.

In 2011, researchers at the University of Notre Dame posited that the phenomenon was caused to the “doorway effect”—suggesting that we tend to forget items of recent significance after crossing a boundary. The boundary may be physical like a door, or it could be a virtual one like switching between tabs on an Internet browser.

But now a follow-up study by Bond University in Queensland, Australia, has found that the effect of “doorways,” alone, on forgetfulness is not as significant as earlier studies claimed; thereby providing a new perspective on the phenomenon. The Independent (UK) reports.

The scientists found that it was not just the door, itself, or even the act of walking through it, but rather the change in context that caused the brain to drop the information that it considered irrelevant.

The research team conducted four studies—two, using real-world locations; and two, in which participants wore virtual reality headsets and moved through various rooms in a 3D environment.

The participants were tasked with memorizing objects (a yellow cross, a blue cone, and so on) on tables within each room; and then, with moving the objects from one table to the next in the same order. Crucially, sometimes the next table was in the same room—and at other times people had to move to another room by passing through an automatic sliding door.

The researchers found the change had no effect on memory and that people rarely forgot objects, regardless of whether they went through a doorway or not.

But, when the researchers made the memory test harder—by asking the participants to perform the same task while simultaneously doing a separate counting task—the findings of the doorway effect were prominent.

“Essentially, the counting task overloaded people’s memory, making it more susceptible to the interference caused by the doorway,” Dr. Oliver Bauman and Dr. Jessica Mcfadyen, the authors of the study, told The Independent..

“This finding more closely resembles everyday experience, where we most often forget what we came into a room to do when we are distracted and thinking about something else,” they said.

Explaining the phenomenon, Dr Baumann said the brain compartmentalizes memories from different environments and contexts.

“If the brain thinks it is in a different context, then those memories belong in a different network of information. Overall that gives us greater capacity than if you have just one gigantic workspace where everything is connected,” he explained.

“But there is a cost to that. By transitioning between compartments we can lose things.”

Dr. Baumann said the Bond study also suggested it was possible to “immunize” yourself against forgetting.

“If we are single-minded in what we want to do, nothing will stop us from remembering. But if we have multiple things going on, forgetfulness becomes noticeable.”

Research contact: @Independent