Posts tagged with "Heart disease"

Paleo Diet linked to heart disease biomarker

July 23, 2019

If you are not living the life of a hunter-gatherer, you probably shouldn’t be eating that way, results of a study have found.

Indeed, more than twice the amount of a key biomarker linked closely to heart disease has been found in the blood of people who adhere to the Paleo Diet.

Researchers from Edith Cowan University in Perth, Australia have just completed the world’s first major study examining the impact of the Paleo Diet on gut bacteria.

The controversial Paleo (or “caveman”) Diet advocates eating meat, vegetables, nuts and limited fruit, therefore excluding grains, legumes, dairy, salt, refined sugar and processed oils.

ECU researchers compared 44 people who adhered to the diet with 47 who were following a traditional Australian diet.

They measured the amount of trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) in the participants’ blood. High levels of TMAO, an organic compound produced in the gut, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease—including heart attack, stroke, and death in patients who otherwise appear to be healthy, according to pioneering research conducted at the Cleveland Clinic in 2015. 

About 610,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That equates to one in every four deaths.

Lead researcher Dr. Angela Genoni from ECU’s School of Medical and Health Sciences said: “Those who promote the Paleo Diet often cite it as beneficial for your gut health, but this research suggests there were adverse differences in those who followed the dietary pattern.”

She said the reason TMAO was so elevated in people on the Paleo Diet appeared to be due to the higher intake of red meats, but also because of the lack of whole grain intake.

“The Paleo Diet excludes all grains and we know that whole grains are a fantastic source of resistant starch, and many other fermentable fibers [that] are vital to the health of your gut microbiome,” Dr Genoni said.

“Because TMAO is produced in the gut, a lack of whole grains might change the populations of bacteria enough to enable higher production of this compound.

“Additionally, the Paleo Diet includes greater servings per day of red meat, which provides the precursor compounds to produce TMAO.”

Dr. Genoni presented the findings of her research at the 2018 Nutrition Society of Australia Conference in Canberra last November.

Research contact: a.genoni@ecu.edu.au

The big chill: Low indoor temperatures are linked to higher blood pressure

March 5, 2019

If you are the one in your household who surreptitiously turns the heat down in order to save a little “cold cash,” think again. You soon could be paying the difference at the pharmacy.

It turns out that, while keeping your thermostat at 68 degrees (F) or lower during the daytime might reduce your financial burden, it could be straining your cardiovascular system. A recent study has linked cooler indoor temperatures to higher blood pressure.

According to a report by Study Finds, researchers at the University College London recently determined that for every one degree Celsius (1.8 degree Fahrenheit) decrease in indoor temperature, systolic blood pressure rises by an average of 0.48 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure jumps about 0.45 mmHg. Systolic blood pressure measures the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart beats, whereas diastolic blood pressure measures the pressure in between beats. A blood pressure under 120/80 mmHg is considered normal.

“Our research has helped to explain the higher rates of hypertension, as well as potential increases in deaths from stroke and heart disease, in the winter months, suggesting indoor temperatures should be taken more seriously in diagnosis and treatment decisions, and in public health messages,” notes senior author Dr. Stephen Jivraj, of the UCL Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, in a media release, adding, “Among other diet and lifestyle changes people can make to reduce high blood pressure, our findings suggest that keeping homes a bit warmer could also be beneficial.”

For the study, Dr. Jivraj’s team, evaluated data from 4,659 participants in the Health Survey for England. Individuals completed questionnaires on their general health and lifestyle choices; then, nurses followed up on the questionnaire by visiting the participants in their homes to measure their blood pressure and take indoor temperature readings. They found that average blood pressure for residents in the coolest homes was 126.64/74.52, whereas those in the warmest homes averaged 121.12/70.51 mmHg.

Researchers had to account for other factors such as social deprivation and outdoor temperature to identify independent associations between blood pressure and indoor temperature. The effect was especially notable in people who were less physically active.

Though the authors didn’t pinpoint a temperature for a “warm enough home,” they do suggest that 21 degrees (C) or about 70 degrees (F), is ideal.

“We would suggest that clinicians take indoor temperature into consideration, as it could affect a diagnosis if someone has borderline hypertension, and people with cooler homes may also need higher doses of medications,” says co-author Hongde Zhao.

The study was published in the Journal of Hypertension.

Research contact: @uclnews

Can intermittent fasting improve your health?

November 23, 2018

According to research by the Calorie Control Council, a typical Thanksgiving dinner can carry a load of 3,000 calories. That’s about 500 more calories than most Americans eat in a whole day—and also about 500 more than it takes to gain one pound.

And that’s also why, on the day after the holiday, many of us might be wondering about the pros and cons of intermittent fasting—one of the buzziest diets out there right now. After all, why diet diligently all week when you can drop the excess weight by skipping food entirely just two or three days out of seven?

Fans of this form of dieting say they have lost as much as 8% of their body weight within eight weeks by cutting calories by 20% every other day. They also say they are healthier and have less inflammation.

WebMD theorizes that the possible secret behind the diet’s health benefits is that fasting puts mild stress on your body’s cells. Scientists think that the process of responding to this stress can strengthen the cells’ ability to fight off some diseases—even disorders as serious as heart disease and cancer.

But are these claims legit? Honestly, researchers say, not enough is known yet to confirm whether fasting is advisable or not.

As Liz Weinandy, a staff dietitian at the Ohio State University’s Wexner Medical Center, admitted to Men’s Health magazine in a recent interview, ““I don’t think anybody knows.This is all preliminary.”

In fact, the magazine says, most of the press coverage of intermittent fasting and its purported immune system benefits has focused on just one study: In 2014, Valter Longo— a professor of Gerontology and the director of the USC Longevity Institute—found that cycles of a four-day low-calorie diet that mimicked fasting (FMD) cut visceral belly fat and elevated the number of progenitor and stem cells in several organs of older mice—including the brain, where it boosted neural regeneration and improved learning and memory.

The test was part of a three-tiered study on periodic fasting’s effects—involving yeast, mice, and humans— o be published by the journal Cell Metabolism in June 2015.

Longo and his team had both mice and human cancer patients fast for four days. During the fast, both the mice and the cancer patients discarded old blood cells; once the fast was broken, their bodies produced shiny, new cells to take the place of discarded ones, thus effectively regenerating their immune systems.

In fact, Longo found, in the pilot human trial, three cycles of a similar diet given to 19 subjects once a month for five days decreased risk factors and biomarkers for aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer with no major adverse side effects.

Results of of the study led the USC team to conclude that prolonged periods of fasting could reduce the harsh side effects of chemotherapy for cancer patients—in fact, some patients are already trying this on their own, based on a story posted this year by U.S. News & World Report)—or even boost immunity for healthy people.

A 2015 study by Yale Medical School went one further, finding that hat a compound produced by the body when dieting or fasting can block a part of the immune system involved in several inflammatory disorders such as Type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Convinced and ready to start? First, read a few cautions from Men’s Health.

First, most intermittent fasting plans recommend not eating between 16 to 24 hours— a much shorter period of time than the four-day fast in Longo’s study. For this reason, Longo says it’s unlikely that his study has any long-term implications about the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

Your body won’t eliminate old cells “until two, three, or four days into the fasting,” he told the magazine. “It takes even longer for the system to start really breaking down muscle, breaking down immune cells, breaking down different tissues.”

Indeed, the report says, future studies will require a broader sample size than Longo’s, so we can determine how fasting affects different groups of people —for instance, the elderly, or diabetes patients, or those with low-functioning immune systems.

What’s more, if you have an active lifestyle, cut back on exercising because fasting could potentially drain your stores of sodium and potassium—two electrolytes that are essential for kidney, heart, and muscle function.

And finally, don’t forget to drink. Water is always a great choice, all day, every day. Sparkling water is fine—but don’t use artificial sweeteners. They will wreak havoc on your insulin levels and defeat your end purposes entirely.

Research contact: melissa.matthews@hearst.com