Posts tagged with "CDC"

Strong-arm tactics: Bottle feeding is linked to left-handedness

January 11, 2019

Bottle feeding infants is associated with left-handedness, according to findings of a study conducted at the University of Washington and released on January 7.

The study found that the prevalence of left-handedness is lower among breastfed infants, as compared to bottle-fed babies. This finding was identified in about 60,000 mother-infant pairs and accounted for known risk factors for handedness.

The results provide further insight into the development of complex brain functions which ultimately determine which side of the batter box the infant likely will choose.

“We think breastfeeding optimizes the process the brain undergoes when solidifying handedness,” said Philippe Hujoel, the study’s author, a professor at the UW’s School of Dentistry and an adjunct professor of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health. “That’s important because it provides an independent line of evidence that breastfeeding may need to last six to nine months.”

The study does not imply, however, that breastfeeding leads to right-handedness, Hujoel said. Handedness, whether it be right- or left-handed, is set early in fetal life and is at least partially determined by genetics. The research does sheds light on when the region of the brain that controls handedness localizes to one side of the brain, a process known as brain lateralization. Possibly, the research shows, breastfeeding optimizes this lateralization towards becoming right- or left-handed.

According to Scientific American magazine, about 15% of people are left-handed—and males are more than twice as likely to be left-handed as females. How does that match up with statistics for breastfeeding and bottle feeding? Based on data released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , among U.S. children born between the years 2009 and 2015, 10% were exclusively bottle-fed for the first six months of life; while 30% were bottle-fed exclusively up to the age of three months.

The good news, according to Daily Infographic, is that left-handers are more likely to be geniuses and left-handed men are, on average, 15% more affluent than their right-handed peers.

Interestingly enough, statistically, the older a mother is, the more likely she is to give birth to left-handed children. But we don’t know how likely older mothers are to bottle-feed versus breastfeed.

Research contact: @UWMedicine

Vaping companies offer college scholarships to high school students

June 11, 2018

Just five years ago, nearly three times as many U.S. high school students smoked as puffed on e-cigarettes. Today, almost twice as many secondary school kids vape as smoke, based on findings of a National Youth Tobacco Survey released by the Office of Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

That amounts to one in every four high school students and more than one in every 14 middle school kids who have been hooked on nicotine by e-cigarettes, according to a report by Science News for Students. It is not a risk-free practice. In fact Irfan Rahman, a professor of Environmental Medicine at the University of Rochester in New York says that, while vape pens—including the Juuls and KandyPens that are trending with teens—are far less dangerous than conventional butts, not only will they ruin a user’s gums and loosen his or her teeth, but studies suggest that kids who vape are more likely to smoke real cigarettes in the future.

According to Rahman, “The liquid and vapor that vape users inhale (and exhale onto others) contain harmful chemicals such as anti-freeze, a host of carcinogens, and other substances known to cause cell death. Meanwhile, the concentrated nicotine in vaping solutions poses a unique, toxic threat to small children who unintentionally swallow the liquid or spill it on their skin. In a word, e-cigarettes aren’t safe for your kids and aren’t safe around your kids.”

Rahman emphasizes that even flavored vapes can be harmful to the lungs. ““Nicotine-free e-liquids have generally been considered safe; however, the impact of flavoring chemicals, especially on immune cells, has not been widely researched  Even though flavoring compounds are considered safe for ingestion, it is not safe for inhalation.”

Scholarships sweeten the success of vaping

The data show that an estimated 16% of high school kids vaped in 2015. That adds up to 2.39 million teens. By comparison, just 1.37 million high school kids smoked cigarettes. And the number of vapers is increasing—partially because of a new marketing campaign launched by the companies that sell e-cigarettes and vaporizers. Their latest tactic: Offering college scholarships and getting students to write essays about the joys and benefits of vaping, in contrast to cigaretttes, in order to win the money.

News of the grants is spreading quickly online—posted at such websites as DaVinci Vaporizer, Slick Vapes, and SmokeTastic For example, SmokeTastic says on its site, “Under the ST Scholarship Program, we shall be awarding one scholarship award of $1000 to the winning candidate which will be determined by our judges and possibly published on our site. Our scholarship is aimed at helping all students, from all walks of life, afford the rising costs in education fees, books, and living costs. The scholarship will be made payable directly to the university/school that the winners are from by cheque.

Eligibility is no problem, the company says: “We are open to any current college-going student, including incoming freshman enrolled in any educational program to apply. We do ask however, students must be enrolled at an accredited college, university or trade school. No major or trade requirements. We have opened the scholarship up to students to apply from all countries. We do also ask that the students have a minimum GPA of 2.5.”

And under “Details of the Essay,” SmokeTastic tells students to submit an essay of 500 to 1,500 words, talking about such subjects as:

  • Why do people still choose to smoke in society?
  • Is vaping a new problem with younger smokers and potentially introducing them to smoking?
  • Would a smoke-free world really improve society?
  • What message do you have for current smokers thinking about vaping?
  • Is vaping addiction a real concern?

Although some of the scholarships are limited to students 18 and older—the nation’s legal age to buy vaping products—many are open to younger teens or have no age limit.

Research contact: Irfan_rahman@urmc.rochester.edu

Accidents are now #3 cause of death in America

January 18, 2018

Are many of us simply an accident statistic waiting to happen? Unintentional, preventable injuries—classified as accidents—claimed a record high 161,374 American lives in 2016, to become the third leading cause of death in the United States (after heart disease and cancer) for the first time ever, according to a report from the National Safety Council released on January 17.

In fact, in America, someone is accidentally injured every second and killed every three minutes by a preventable event.

Highest on the list in 2016, according to the council, were poisoning (58,335 deaths), motor vehicle accidents (40,327), falls (34,673) choking (4,829), drowning (3,786) and fire/flames/smoke (2,730).

Along with other nonspecific accidents, that led to a total of 14,803 more people who died unexpectedly during 2016 than in 2015— a 10% year-over-year increase.

This represents the largest single-year percentage rise since 1936, and the largest two-year rise (+18.6%, for 2015-2016) since 1903.

According to the NSC, the unprecedented spike has been greatly fueled by the opioid crisis. Unintentional opioid overdose deaths totaled 37,814 from drugs—including prescription opioid pain relievers, heroin, and illicitly made fentanyl.

NSC analysis of the data— tracked annually by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control— also confirmed the council’s motor vehicle fatality estimate for 2016. Motor vehicle deaths rose 6.8% in 2016 — in step with the NSC’s  original estimate of 40,200 deaths. NSC can now confirm that the final 2016 data marks a 14% increase in roadway deaths since 2014 – the largest two-year jump in 53 years.

“Our complacency results in 442 deaths each day,” said NSC CEO Deborah A.P. Hersman. “For years our country has accepted unintentional injuries as an unavoidable reality. The truth is, there is no such thing as an accident. Every single one of these deaths was preventable. We know what to do to save lives, but collectively we have failed to prioritize safety at work, at home and on the road.”

Preventable deaths have been rising since 2009 after years of declines and plateaus, and they trail only heart disease and cancer when it comes to the number of lives lost annually. Unlike other causes of death, preventable injuries are a threat at every age.

Finally, there is just a bit of good news: We’re safer than we were a century ago: In 1903, the accidental standardized death rate was 99.4 per 100,000 population—twice as high as the current death rate of 47.2. However, the current death rate is 39% higher than the lowest recorded rate, 34.0, achieved in 1992.

Research contact: customerservice@nsc.org

Most U.S. teens have sex by 18, but pregnancies are down

January 17, 2018

More than half of American teens have had sex by age 18, but teenage pregnancy and birth rates continue to decline because of increased contraceptive use, according to a U.S. government study released in 2017 and posted on the Reuters website.

The study measured sexual activity, defined as vaginal intercourse between a female and a male, by teens aged 15 to 19 from 2011 through 2015.

Most of the 55% of teens who have had sex by 18 used some type of protection, typically a condom (80%), the study of more than 4,000 teenagers who attend U.S. public schools by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics found.

The researchers credit the more widespread use of contraception for helping to reduce the rate of births by teenagers to 22 per 1,000 females in 2015 from 62 per 1,000 in 1991

Teen pregnancy rates peaked in 1990 and have since fallen more than 50%, said Joyce Abma, a social scientist at the National Center for Health Statistics, who co-authored the report with Gladys Martinez.

The study found that among males aged 15 to 19, about 44% have had sex, down from 60 percent in 1988. For females, that rate was 42 percent in the recent study compared with 51 percent in 1988.

Among the teen females who have had sex, 74% hadintercourse for the first time with someone with whom they were “going steady,” compared with 51% of the males, the study found.

Research contact: Contact CDC–INFO