Posts made in July 2018

Neighborhoods: There’s gold in them thar ‘Hills’

August 1, 2018

People who earn a high income tend to “head for the hills” when they buy property, according to findings of a study conducted by Porch—a platform that connects home improvement professionals with householders who need their services.

For its study, Porch, analyzed the names of neighborhoods with the highest average household incomes in America. They discovered that, “Whether it makes sense or not, the names and identifiers of our American communities and housing developments often say more about the people living there than we might realize.”

Nationwide, the researchers found that areas dubbed “Hills,” “Island,” and “Village” reported the highest average household incomes, ranging from just over $77,000 to nearly $90,000 a year. Specifically, the highest incomes were found in neighborhoods with the following monikers:

  • Hills: $89,976;
  • Island: $87,527
  • Village $77,087;
  • Oaks: $72,492;
  • Acres: $71,485;
  • Highland: $71,072;
  • Canyon: $69,910;
  • Beach: $69,728;
  • Forest: $69,438; and
  • Bay: $69,049.

Neighborhoods named for ocean destinations and seaside escapes, such as “Island,” “Beach,” and “Harbor,” had the highest home property values—ranging from $416,000 to more than $440,000. Indeed, choosing a home in a seaside community could cost a buyer more than double the median home rate.

Of course, sometimes a name just happens to become popular in any given state. It’s not hard to imagine why “Beach” shows up in the neighborhood titles of 66 different Florida areas. On the West Coast, you’ll find “Valley” as the most popular identifier in California, Nevada, and Arizona. And in Louisiana, Southern charm comes alive in the eight different areas of the state with “Bayou” in the name.

Across the country, Lake” (605), “City” (599), and “Park” (345) showed up more often in every state than any other type of name or title.

Looking for communities where homes might be the least expensive overall? Porch found the lowest home values in areas with words like “Fort,” “Junction,” and “Rock” in their names. In such neighborhoods, homes were valued at nearly half the median price of $200,000.

Research contact: matt@porch.com

Trump: ‘Either build the wall or I’ll shut the government down’

August 1, 2018

On July 30, during a joint press conference with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, President Donald Trump reiterated his tweeted threat of the day before to shut down the federal government at the end of September, if Congress does not deliver on Republican demands to crack down on immigration by enforcing security on the border with Mexico and to construct his long-promised wall, The New York Times reported.

“If we don’t get border security after many, many years of talk within the United States, I would have no problem doing a shutdown,” Trump told the media. “We’re the laughingstock of the world.”

Indeed, if the POTUS was concerned about potentially throwing his party into disarray with his threats prior to the midterm elections, he did not show it, the Times said.

However, his comments on immigration did not find a welcome reception on Capitol Hill, where Republicans staring toward November’s elections were quick to distance themselves. The party risks losing control of one or both chambers, and its leaders have made it evident that they see no upside to a chaotic government shutdown in the weeks before voters cast their ballots.

“Obviously up here, we want to keep the government up and functioning,” Republican Senator John Thune of South Dakota told the Times. “I’m not sure where the president is coming from.”

Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah, the longest-serving Republican in the Senate, chalked the comments up to a negotiating technique —however ill-advised it may be.

“He knows the game,” Hatch commented to the news outlet. “But we don’t want to do that again. Nobody wants that.”

Republican leaders in both chambers expect to pass the majority of the 12 appropriations bills necessary to keep the government operating before September 30, the end of the fiscal year. Between those bills and a short-term spending measure to bridge the gap, they believe they can push off any potential fights—including over border wall funding—until after the midterms.

That, at least, was the plan Republican leaders pitched last week to Trump at the White House. They left thinking they had reached a mutual understanding, the Times said.

“I was a little surprised that he brought it back up again,” Republican Senator John Cornyn of Texas told the news outlet “But I know it’s really a burr under his saddle.”

survey by The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research back in April found that 58% of Americans oppose new spending for the border wall, while just 28% support it. Along party lines, 86% of Democrats oppose new spending for the wall, as do 57% of Independents.

Research contact: support@apnews.com

1,000+ Americans already have downloaded Defense Distributed’s 3-D printing plans for assault rifles

August 1, 2018

For several years, students and enthusiasts have been using three-dimensional (3-D) printing to create prosthetics for people and animals in need, to build houses, and to produce other types of useful equipment (from bottle openers to coin sorters). Now, 3-D printing suddenly has become more immeasurably more dangerous: In fact, more than 1,000 people nationwide already have downloaded plans to print an AR-15-style semiautomatic assault rifle in three dimensions ahead of a change in the federal law on August 1.

In a court settlement on June 29, the Daily Beast reported, the U.S. government agreed that Americans will be able to legally download plans for 3-D printed guns—nicknamed “Ghost Guns” because they don’t have serial numbers and are untraceable by authorities.

Pennsylvania Attorney General Josh Shapiro, who has been fighting to keep 3-D printed guns out of his state, revealed that plans already are gaining popularity online ahead of the law change. The Pennsylvania Attorney General’s Office asked a judge for a restraining order that would block a website run by gun-rights group Defense Distributed, which holds downloadable plans for the guns, from being accessible in his state.

Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson also announced on July 30 that he is leading a lawsuit brought by eight states and the District of Columbia to block the legalization of downloadable 3-D gun plans.

In addition, according to a report by The Washington Post, 21 state attorneys general have sent a letter to U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo expressing their concern: “As the Chief Law Enforcement Officers of our states, we believe the settlement terms and proposed rules are deeply dangerous and could have an unprecedented impact on public safety. In addition to helping arm terrorists and transnational criminals, the settlement and proposed rules would provide another path to gun ownership for people who are prohibited by federal and state law from possessing firearms. Federal courts have recognized the danger of allowing these guns to be publicly available on the Internet, and this Administration has abruptly disregarded those rulings. We urge you to withdraw from the settlement and withdraw the proposed rules immediately, and allow full and fair consideration of any future proposed rules on these issues.”

They further noted: “As a result of the Department of State’s settlement with Defense Distributed, terrorists, criminals, and individuals seeking to do harm would have unfettered access to print and manufacture dangerous firearms. Some of these weapons may even be undetectable by magnetometers in places like airports and government buildings and untraceable by law enforcement. Illegal trafficking of these guns across state and national borders could also increase, and self-made, unregistered, and untraceable firearms could easily wind up in the hands of (or simply be produced directly by) dangerous individuals.”

President Donald Trump expressed his concern about 3-D guns Tuesday morning, tweeting: “I am looking into 3-D Plastic Guns being sold to the public. Already spoke to NRA, doesn’t seem to make much sense!”

Finally, in a March poll, nearly two-thirds of American adults under 30 who plan to vote in the midterm elections said that they believe gun-control laws should be stricter—a reflection of growing support for such actions among younger Americans. The poll by Harvard University’s Institute of Politics, conducted following the school shooting in Parkland, Florida., established that 64% of 18- to 29-year-olds favor stricter gun-control laws, regardless of whether they plan to vote in November.

For several years, the opinions of young Democrats, Republicans and independents have been steadily shifting toward greater support for gun-control measures,” said John Della Volpe, the institute’s polling director. “The difference today is that the Parkland students have created an environment where the lack of progress on reducing gun violence is now symbolic of all the ills plaguing Washington, D.C.”

Research contact: harvardiop@gmail.com

Giuliani: ‘Collusion is not a crime’

July 31, 2018

Rudy Giuliani, attorney and spokesperson for President Donald Trump, said in a pair of July 30 interviews that he was at a loss for how colluding with the Russians would be categorized as a crime, Business Insider reported.

The comment—all but an admission that the POTUS had, indeed, colluded with a hostile foreign power—came shortly after Trump’s former personal lawyer and “fixer” Michael Cohen claimed to CNN on July 26 that he was with his then-boss and several other Trump Organization executives in 2016 when Donald Trump, Jr., told his father he could “get dirt” on Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton from the Russians.

Instead of denying that there was any collusion, as Trump has been doing since he took office, Giuliani shifted the conversation by noting that the president did not “pay them for hacking,” which he said was the real offense.

Speaking with the hosts of the Fox and Friends morning show, Giuliani said he has “been sitting here looking in the federal code trying to find collusion as a crime.

“Collusion is not a crime,” he said, adding that the president is “absolutely innocent.”

Then in a discussion with CNN’s New Day, Giuliani said if you “start analyzing the crime, the hacking is the crime.”

“The president didn’t hack,” Giuliani said. “He didn’t pay them for hacking. If you got the hacked information from the Russians here at CNN and you played it, would you be in jeopardy of going to jail? Of course not.”

Giuliani’s comments came a day after Trump took to Twitter to again attack Special Counsel Robert Mueller, who is tasked with investigating Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election. Trump tweeted that there was “No Collusion!” and added that Mueller’s “rigged witch hunt” was “an illegal Scam!”

During his Monday interviews, Giuliani questioned Cohen’s credibility and said the president “did not participate” in the meeting with the Russians, Business Insider said..

Giuliani told CNN he was “happy to tell” Mueller that Trump “wasn’t at the meeting.” Giuliani added that other individuals who could corroborate Cohen’s account would not do so—charging that Cohen is making these claims now because he feels the criminal investigation closing in on him.

Based on the findings of a July 24 Quinnipiac University poll, American voters believe 51% versus 35% “that the Russian government has compromising information about President Trump.” A total of 68% of American voters are “very concerned” or “somewhat concerned” about President Trump’s relationship with Russia, while 32% are “not so concerned” or “not concerned at all.”

Research contact: brown@quinnipiac.edu

A parasite found in cat poop encourages entrepreneurship

July 31, 2018

It takes courage, creativity, and funding to become an entrepreneur. Or maybe the secret is a parasite frequently found in cat litter, a July 30 report on The Ladders suggests.

Weirdly enough, a study posted by the Proceedings of the Royal Society B has established a link between infection with Toxoplasma gondii—a microorganism found in cat poop and undercooked meat—with a proclivity for business and economic studies and entrepreneurship.

Stefanie Johnson, an associate professor of Management at the University of Colorado, and her six co-authors have discovered that students who have been infected with the Toxoplasma gondii, are 1.4 times more likely to have majored in business than non-infected people.

Among people attending entrepreneurship events, those who got infected with this brain-changing parasite were 1.8 times more likely to have started their own business.

According to the researchers, “the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide and has been linked to behavioral alterations in humans and other vertebrates.

Specifically, the infection has been linked to risk-taking behavior. “More than 30 million men, women, and children in the U.S. carry the … parasite, but very few have symptoms; because the immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness,” the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website notes.

The parasite also has a correlational link to a lowered fear of failure, which may explain why more infected people become entrepreneurs. Countries that had a high rate of infection also had a lower fraction of respondents who cited ‘fear of failure’ as a factor preventing them from initiating a business-related enterprise.”

“Many of us do not change jobs, take tough assignments, or start our own ventures because we are afraid of failing,” Johnson told Ladders. “The fear of loss most often outweighs the benefits of gains that you could get because we are risk-averse. Maybe [T. gondii] removes that a little.”

On the down side, the study reported that Toxoplasma has been linked to a “greater risk of car accidents, mental illness, neuroticism, drug abuse and suicide.”

Research contact:  Stefanie.Johnson@colorado.edu

JOMO: The joy of missing out

July 31, 2018

On Facebook and other social media channels, we find out that our “friends” are travelling to exotic places, seeing their children graduate from school, visiting with adorable grandchildren, going to rock concerts and museums, spending the day at the beach, taking selfies with the stars, or starting a new job. Many of us scroll down obsessively, in order to find out what the rest of the world is doing while we are sitting at our computers. Indeed, social media inevitably fosters fear of missing out (FOMO)—although (if we are honest with ourselves) we actually would avoid many of the activities in which these friends are engaging.

Another driver of FOMO is the social pressure to be at the right place with the right people (like that awesome party everyone else enjoyed last weekend). This pressure from society combined with the fear of missing out can wear us down and can decrease our happiness.

Indeed, based on the findings of a recent survey on LinkedIn, 70% of workers admit that when they take a vacation, they don’t disconnect from work. Our digital habits—constantly checking messages and social media—have become so entrenched, that it is nearly impossible to enjoy “getting away from it all,” because we may be missing something.

However, LinkedIn suggests, there is an antidote: Instead of living in perpetual fear of missing out, many are embracing a new approach to our always-on, tech-dependent lives. They are taking the time to tune out. Call it JOMO, or the joy of missing out.

“JOMO is the emotionally intelligent antidote to FOMO and is essentially about being present and being content with where you are at in life,” says Kristin Fuller, M.D. in a recent issue of Psychology Today.

“You do not need to compare your life to others; but, instead, practice tuning out the background noise of the ‘shoulds’ and ‘wants’ and learn to let go of worrying [about] whether you are doing something wrong,” she says. “JOMO allows us to live life in the slow lane, to appreciate human connections, to be intentional with our time, to practice saying  ‘no,’ to give ourselves tech-free breaks—and to give ourselves permission to acknowledge where we are and to feel emotions, whether they are positive or negative. Instead of constantly trying to keep up with the Joneses, JOMO allows us to be who we are in the present moment, which is the secret to finding happiness. When you free up that competitive and anxious space in your brain, you have so much more time, energy and emotion to conquer your true priorities.”

She advises us to:

  • Be intentional with your time: Schedule something that is important to you, whether it is working out, meeting a friend for coffee, writing that book or completing a work project. Make your time your priority instead of wasting time worrying about what other individuals are doing or thinking.
  • Give yourself permission to live in the present: If you are having a bad day, be easy on yourself and treat yourself to a relaxing evening. If you just received good news, then take a moment to embrace it and celebrate. If you feel that you are in constant competition with someone on social media, then re-assess why you are feeling this way.
  • Embrace tech-free time: Unsubscribe from social media accounts; and un-follow individuals who trigger your FOMO, or cause you any type of negativity. Set daily limits to how long you can spend on social media or delete certain social media apps from your phone so you can only status scroll when you are at home on your computer.
  • Practice saying “no”: You do not always have to go to that event or take that phone call. Sometimes saying “no” is the best kind of self-love. Even if you want to help someone, but feel it will have a negative impact on yourself, say “no,” in order to protect yourself.
  • Experience real life (not social media life): JOMO allows you to have more free time by eliminating wasted time spent scrolling social media feeds. Instead of spending your free moments suckered into the drama of social media, disconnect and do the things that you enjoy—such as cooking, spending time outdoors, and spending time with your family.
  • Slow down: Take time to think before you speak, embrace the quiet, use time driving in traffic or waiting in lines to sit with your thoughts or listen to a book. Slowing down can increase our creativity, which we can harvest into other productive avenues and projects in our life.

Fuller notes, “Instead of having FOMO over silly experiences on social media, we should be wary about having FOMO over missing moments with loved ones, watching sunsets, laughing at jokes, traveling, walking barefoot through the grass, hearing the sound of the ocean, and enjoying good food with family and friends.”

Research contact: @gldnminded

The knives are out: Cohen says former boss knew about Trump Tower meet, POTUS issues denial

July 30, 2018

The knives are out. The confrontation between President Donald Trump and his former personal lawyer and “fixer” Michael Cohen has escalated, with Cohen claiming to CNN on July 26 that he was with his then-boss and several other Trump Organization executives in 2016 when Donald Trump, Jr., told his father he could “get dirt” on Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton from the Russians.

On Twitter early on July 27, President Trump strongly denied the story, writing: “… I did NOT know of the meeting with my son, Don jr. Sounds to me like someone is trying to make up stories in order to get himself out of an unrelated jam (Taxi cabs maybe?)”

Sources told CNN that not only does Cohen claim that President Trump had advance knowledge of the meeting in Trump Tower involving Donald Trump Jr., as well as Jared Kushner and then-campaign manager Paul Manafort, but he is willing to tell Special Counsel Robert Mueller all about it in support of collusion claims for the Russia investigation. The sources said Cohen does not have evidence, such as audio recordings, to corroborate his claim, but he is willing to attest to his account.

It already has been established—in an admission by Trump Jr.—that Trump’s campaign staff expected to receive dirt, which they labeled as “opposition research,” on Clinton at the June 2016 meeting. However, unlike the Trumps, US intelligence agencies say Russia interfered to support Trump’s candidacy.

Cohen is under criminal investigation in the Southern District of New York because of his business dealings and efforts during the 2016 campaign to suppress negative stories about Trump. An FBI raid on Cohen’s office in April sought information about taxi owners who had financial dealings with Cohen, CNN has reported.

Cohen has hired Lanny Davis, a former special counsel to President Bill Clinton during his impeachment proceedings, to represent him.

“(Cohen) even retained Bill and Crooked Hillary’s (Clinton) lawyer,” Trump also wrote, referring to Davis. “Gee, I wonder if they helped him make the choice!”

Trump did not respond to shouted questions about Cohen from reporters after speaking about the economy at the White House Friday morning.

In an interview on CNN’s “Cuomo Prime Time” Thursday night, Trump’s lawyer in the Russia investigation, Rudy Giuliani, called Cohen a “pathological liar.”

“I don’t see how he’s got any credibility,” the former New York City mayor said.

In a poll released last week by The Hill, Americans said that they believe that Russia continues to want to interfere in U.S. elections and will do so in the lead-up to the midterms. Jointly conducted by NPR, PBS NewsHour and Marist, the poll found that 57% of Americans said they believe Russia is likely to attempt to interfere in November; versus 38%, who said the Kremlin is not likely to do so.

Research contact: @maristpoll

Without fanfare, Senate votes to abate tariffs on Chinese goods

July 30, 2018

As trade tensions escalate between the Trump administration and Beijing, the U.S. Senate with little fanfare passed legislation on July 26 that would lower trade barriers on hundreds of items made in China, CNBC reported. A version of that bill already had passed unanimously in the House of Representatives earlier this year.

With no debate, the Senate unanimously passed a bill that would cut or eliminate tariffs on toasters, chemicals—and roughly 1,660 other items made outside the United States, the business news network said. Nearly half of those items are produced in China, based on a Reuters analysis of government records.

The move is meant to neutralize a 25% tariff on up to $50 billion of Chinese goods that Trump announced in mid-June—as well as a subsequent move by China to impose a 25% retaliatory tariff on $34 billion worth of U.S. goods, including agricultural products and U.S.-made cars.

In June, CNN reported that Trump meant his tariffs on Chinese goods to penalize Beijing for stealing American technology and trade secrets. The news network said that the “tariff is targeted towards the Chinese aerospace, robotics, manufacturing and auto industries.”

According to CNBC, the White House has not publicly taken a position on the so-called Miscellaneous Tariff Bill Act of 2018. The Senate and House now need to resolve minor differences before they can send the legislation to President Trump to sign into law.

The National Association of Manufacturers has said U.S. businesses pay $1 million a day on such import duties. In a statement, NAM urged passage of the act, “to eliminate unfair, out-of-date, distortive, and anticompetitive taxes on manufacturers.”

When asked in an April 11 Quinnipiac poll if they would support or oppose “raising tariffs on products imported from China, if it causes China to raise tariffs on American products,” 51% of U.S. adults nationwide said they would oppose the tariffs and 40% said they would support them. There was a partisan divide in the results, with two-thirds of Republicans supporting Trump’s actions.

Research contact: timothy.malloy@quinnipiac.edu

Midlife panic: A red sports car is the least of it

July 30, 2018

You look in the mirror and realize that you are no longer “young.” Your children are going off to college. Your career has not produced either riches or fame. You still are paying a mortgage and mowing the lawn.

It’s called a midlife crisis—and it can have serious ramifications on your relationships, your career, your bank account, and even your mental health. Those little red sports cars cost money. So does a trip to the Bahamas. And let’s not even talk about the psychological and financial aftermath of an affair.

But all those sports car clichés are bandied about for a reason, according to the findings of a poll conducted by Healthspan Ubiquinol and posted by Metro UK. Researchers polled 1,000 men age 40 an above.. More than half  said they truly had experienced a midlife crisis, with the majority saying that it had hit at around age 47.

Women admit to the same thoughts and feelings—but most do not express them in a flamboyant way. Instead, women are likely to become more “selfish”—carving out time in their lives for things they want to do, such as exercise or run a marathon, or go back to school.

Men very often do cope with a midlife crisis by buying wild and wonderful things. Based on the poll results, the average man will spend US$2,760 (£2,106) during his midlife crisis, with a flashy vacation the most common purchase.

As well as trips abroad, men in the midst of a midlife crisis were likely to buy (in order of respondent preference):

  1. A vacation
  2. A new gadget
  3. A sports car
  4. Designer clothing
  5. A motorbike
  6. Tickets to a concert
  7. A new tattoo
  8. A trip traveling around the world
  9. A gym membership
  10. A games console
  11. A designer watch
  12. Tickets to a music festival
  13. Major home renovations
  14. Expensive or vintage alcohol
  15. Sex toys
  16. A new house or property
  17. A new hairstyle/color
  18. A musical instrument
  19. An expensive bicycyle
  20. Jewelery

One man polled blamed his midlife crisis for buying a US$2,622 (£2,000) Armani suit, another said he had spent US$92,000 (£70,000) on a car, and yet another said he had purchased a US$2,400 (£1,800) albino python.

Psychologist Dr Meg Arroll told Metro UK, “Reaching midlife can act as a significant milestone for many men and is a time when some men become keenly aware of their own mortality. This can result in a profound sense of turmoil and confusion, as life may not have turned out as envisaged (it rarely does). ‘For some men a way to cope with these feelings is to make life-changing decisions regarding relationships and money.”

“‘However,” she said, “this period of introspection doesn’t necessarily have to be negative, For some men, middle age can … be positive, leading to more time spent with family, health kicks ,and getting back to once-loved hobbies.’

In addition to inspiring some less then sensible purchases, the men surveyed revealed that their midlife crises changed their health and relationships—and often, not for the better. Over one-third (37%) said their relationships had lost their spark; 34% said they were more likely to argue with their partner; and 20% said they struggled to see the good in their relationships and family life. Nearly half (48%) said their energy levels dropped after reaching middle age, too. So that’s some fun stuff for us all to anticipate.

Research contact: pressoffice@healthspan.co.uk

Got milk? 46% of Americans say it should come from a cow

July 27, 2018

The Food and Drug Administration claims that some companies are “milking” the term, “milk,” for all it’s worth—and that’s got to stop. Indeed, just last week, FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb said the agency plans to issue a document outlining changes to its policies that govern the marketing of the dairy drink, Morning Consult reported on July 25.

“You see the proliferation of products like soy milk and almond milk calling themselves milk, and if you look at our standards of identity, there is a reference somewhere to a lactating animal,” Gottlieb said. “And an almond doesn’t lactate, I will confess.”

A new Morning Consult/Politico poll of 2,203 U.S. adults suggests some consumer support for the move—with 46% of  respondents saying the label “milk” should not be used to describe nondairy beverages.

Adults age 65 and older showed the strongest support for the FDA’s potential label enforcement (66%). Young adults, or those ages 18-29, showed the strongest support for allowing nondairy beverage makers to call their products “milk,” at 39%.

The debate between dairy producers and plant-based milk substitute producers over the use of the word “milk” isn’t new. In January 2017, Senator Tammy Baldwin (D-Wisconsin) introduced a bill, the Dairy Pride Act  Act (S. 130), which would stop nondairy drink manufacturers from using “milk” to describe their products. However, the bill has languished since that time.

A few weeks after the introduction of the bill, Capstone Law filed two class-action suits in Los Angeles County against plant-based beverage providers—one against WhiteWave Foods (now, a subsidiary of Danone North America)., which produces Silk (soy milk, almond milk, coconut milk, and cashew milk); and another against Blue Diamond Growers, which produces Almond Breeze. However, the Blue Diamond suit was dismissed on the grounds that “the claim of customer confusion is patently implausible,” and the other lawsuit was dismissed on the grounds that the FDA would be a better venue for the discussion.

Charles Lindsey, an associate professor of Marketing at the University at Buffalo School of Management, told Morning Consult on July 23 that the new conversation could be happening too late, given that the terms “soy milk” and “almond milk” are already a part of the consumer lexicon.

“The dairy industry has a perception that this is going to help the dairy industry and the declining sales,” Lindsey said. “But I’m not so sure there’s necessarily a clear winner and a clear loser here as a result of the FDA enforcing a more narrow identity definition of milk.”

Chris Galen, spokesperson for the National Milk Producers Federation, said in a phone interview on July 24 that dairy producers aren’t contending that the average consumer confuses soy milk with cow milk. “The issue though is that when something is called milk, it has this healthy connotation, and what we think people don’t understand is the level of disparities in nutrition,” Galen said.

In Canada, the term “milk” can’t be used for nondairy products, so many brands instead opt to call it an “almond beverage” or an alternative descriptor in markets outside of the United States, Galen said.

“The imitators will have no trouble at all with complying with the standards when the FDA enforces them, because they’re already complying with those standards in other countries,” Galen said.

Jessica Almy, director of Policy at the Good Food Institute, a nonprofit promoting plant-based food products, told the researchers on July 23 that “it’s pretty condescending” to say consumers don’t understand what they’re buying when they purchase almond milk or soy milk.

A consumer is equally as likely to be confused by e-books as they are to almond milk,” Almy said.

Almy hopes that—once the FDA starts exploring enforcement of the already defined milk label—it’ll find a compromise.

“If the FDA were to take a very aggressive approach to how these products can be labeled, it would affect not just the plant-based producers, but a wide swath of the food industry,” Almy said.

The Good Food Institute also said by email that if the FDA were to ban dairy terms on plant-based products, the group would sue.

Research contact: ssabin@morningconsult.com